Estrogen

Estrogen detoxification

Detoxification is a vital process for the elimination of excess estrogen from the body. However, toxins and pesticides found in everyday life can hinder the body's natural detoxification process. In fact, the average person is exposed to over 80,000 chemicals, many of which can disrupt hormonal balance and contribute to estrogen dominance. These toxins can come from a variety of sources, including the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the foods we eat. Pesticides, in particular, can be a significant source of environmental estrogen exposure.


One way the body detoxifies excess estrogen is through the liver. The liver breaks down estrogen into water-soluble compounds that can be excreted in urine or bile. However, if the liver is overburdened with toxins or not functioning optimally, this process can be impaired, leading to an accumulation of estrogen in the body. To support liver detoxification, it is important to eat a nutrient-dense diet, avoid alcohol and processed foods, and engage in regular exercise.


Another way the body eliminates excess estrogen is through bowel movements. When estrogen is metabolized in the liver, it is sent to the intestines to be eliminated in feces. However, if the bowel movements are not regular, estrogen can be reabsorbed into the bloodstream, leading to an accumulation of estrogen in the body. To promote regular bowel movements and support estrogen detoxification, it is essential to consume adequate fiber and drink plenty of water. The hormone estrogen is produced by the ovaries and has receptors present in various parts of the body, including the brain, muscles, bone, and bladder. It plays a vital role in numerous functions of the body, such as temperature regulation, prevention of Alzheimer's disease and muscle damage, maintenance of muscles, regulation of blood pressure, and enhancement of energy levels. Additionally, estrogen has been found to improve moods and increase sexual interest.
  
List of effects of estrogen on the body:
  • Keeps arteries open by blocking the action of calcium.

  • Promotes the formation of neurotransmitters like serotonin, which play a role in regulating mood and pain sensitivity.

  • Decreases the amount of bad cholesterol (LDL) in your blood and keeps it from being damaged.

  • Reduces the risk of heart disease by up to half.

  • Decreases heart disease risk by lowering levels of lipoprotein A.

  • Decreases wrinkles.

  • Increases the water content of your skin, which is responsible for your skin’s thickness and softness.

  • Helps your body run at a youthful level by increasing the rate of metabolism.

  • Improves insulin sensitivity.

  • Helps prevent tooth loss.

  • Increases HDL (good cholesterol) by 15 percent.


Most women who suffer estrogen-related problems are actually suffering from an excess of estrogen. Although estrogen deficiencies are less common in women, they can still occur. There are only two causes for this deficiency:

Excess or Deficiency of Estrogen in Women 

  1. Most estrogen-related problems in women arise due to excess estrogen.

  • Estrogen deficiencies are less common but can occur due to two main causes:

  • Causes of Estrogen Deficiency

  1. Perimenopause and menopause: 

  • The body stops producing estrogen when a woman reaches menopause, which usually happens around the age of 50. However, it can occur earlier or later in life, and approximately 20% of women go through menopause before the age of 40.

  • Premature ovarian decline (POD): POD is a condition that affects about 1-2% of women between the ages of 35 and 40. It can cause severe hormone imbalances and infertility, accounting for almost 15% of cases in which low levels of estrogen are observed.


Symptoms of Estrogen Deficiency include:

  • Acne

  • Anxiety

  • Arthritis

  • Infertility

  • Thinning hair

  • Food cravings

  • muscle pain (Fibromyalgia)

  • Brittle hair and nails

  • Elevated cholesterol

  • Elevated blood pressure

  • Chronic Fatigue syndrome

  • Increased susceptibility to bladder infections and incontinence.

  • Loss of sex drive/sexual dysfunction

  • Depression

  • Difficulty reaching and maintaining a healthy weight, despite diet and exercise

  • Elevated blood glucose levels, a condition called insulin resistance, is a precursor to diabetes.

  • Feelings of being drained or exhausted towards the end of the day

  • More wrinkles (aging skin)

  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome

  • Vaginal dryness

  • Vulvodynia (vaginal pain)


Causes of excess estrogen

  • Diet low in grains and fiber

  • Elevation of 16-hydroxyesterone

  • Environmental estrogens

  • Impaired elimination of estrogen

  • Lack of exercise

  • Taking too much estrogen



Natural estrogen


Estrone (E1)

E1 is mainly produced by the ovaries and adrenal glands before menopause, and it is changed to E2 in the ovaries. However, after menopause, the ovaries stop making estrogen and E1 is mainly produced in the body's fat tissue, as well as in the liver and adrenal glands. Studies have shown that E1 levels are much higher in postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal women, with some studies reporting a nearly 4-fold increase in E1 levels after menopause. High levels of E1 have been linked to several health risks, such as an increased risk of breast cancer. Obese women have been found to have more E1 compared to E2, which increases their E1-to-E2 ratio, leading to a higher risk of breast cancer.


Estradiol (E2)

Estradiol (E2) is the most potent and prevalent estrogen hormone produced in the body. It is primarily produced by the ovaries before menopause, and to a lesser extent by the adrenal glands in both men and women. After menopause, E2 levels significantly decrease as the ovaries stop producing estrogen. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of female reproductive tissues, as well as in bone health, cognitive function, and cardiovascular health. Low levels of E2 have been linked to an increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cognitive decline. On the other hand, high levels of E2 have been associated with an increased risk of breast and endometrial cancers.


Functions of E2 in your body

  • Regulates menstrual cycles and female reproductive organs

  • Plays a role in maintaining healthy cholesterol levels

  • Affects mood and cognitive function

  • Promotes healthy skin and hair growth

  • Development and maintenance of female reproductive organs, including the uterus, ovaries, and vagina.

  • maintain bone density and reducing the risk of osteoporosis.

  • including reducing the risk of heart disease.

  • Regulates mood and cognitive function, including memory and attention.

  • Helps maintain healthy skin and hair.

  • promoting the production of antibodies.

  • regulates of insulin levels.

  • Promotes healthy sexual function, including libido


As women age, they experience a natural decline in the production of estrogen hormones, particularly estradiol (E2). This decline can lead to various changes in the body, including bone loss, hot flashes, and mood disturbances. In fact, research has shown that E2 levels decline by approximately 35% in the first five years after menopause and continue to decrease over time. Additionally, by the age of 60, E2 levels are typically only 10-20% of what they were during a woman's reproductive years. 


Symptoms of E2 decline in menstruation women

  • Hot flashes

  • Night sweats

  • Vaginal dryness

  • Decreased libido

  • Mood swings

  • Depression

  • Anxiety

  • Fatigue

  • Insomnia

  • Irregular periods

  • Heavy periods

  • Painful periods

  • Breast tenderness

  • Urinary incontinence

  • Dry skin

  • Hair loss

  • Memory problems

  • Joint pain

  • Headaches

  • Dizziness

  • Weight gain

  • Muscle weakness

  • Osteoporosis

  • Increased risk of cardiovascular disease

  • Increased risk of Alzheimer's disease

  • Increased risk of diabetes

  • Changes in body odor

  • Reduced muscle mass

  • Reduced endurance

  • Reduced physical function


Estriol (E3)

Estriol (E3) has a unique ability to bind to estrogen receptors with a much weaker affinity than estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1). This weak binding allows for a gentler and more selective effect on estrogen receptors. E3 also has a high affinity for a specific type of estrogen receptor called the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), which has been found to play a key role in many aspects of women's health, including bone health, cardiovascular health, and breast cancer prevention. By binding to ERβ, E3 has been shown to promote the growth and differentiation of healthy breast tissue, while inhibiting the growth of cancerous breast tissue. Additionally, E3 has been found to promote a more favorable lipid profile, reducing the risk of heart disease.



Estrogen binds to two main receptor sites in the body, known as estrogen receptor-alpha and estrogen receptor-beta. Estrogen receptor-alpha promotes cell growth, while estrogen receptor-beta decreases cell growth and may help to prevent the development of breast cancer. Estradiol (E2) activates both estrogen receptor types equally, while Estrone (E1) selectively activates estrogen receptor-alpha in a ratio of five-to-one. This means that E1 prefers to bind with the alpha receptor type, which can increase cell proliferation. In contrast, Estriol (E3) has a three-to-one preference for binding to estrogen receptor-beta. It is believed that this selective binding to estrogen-beta receptor sites gives E3 the potential to help prevent breast cancer.



E3 has been found to improve bone health by stimulating the growth of new bone cells and reducing bone resorption. It also helps to regulate the immune system, which can reduce the risk of autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, E3 has a positive effect on the cardiovascular system, as it helps to lower cholesterol levels and reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Finally, E3 has been found to have a protective effect on the brain and may help to reduce the risk of developing dementia and Alzheimer's disease. 



functions of Estriol (E3):

  • Regulates the menstrual cycle: Estriol plays a crucial role in regulating the menstrual cycle and ensuring the proper functioning of the reproductive system.

  • Protects against osteoporosis: Estriol has been shown to protect against osteoporosis, a condition where bones become weak and brittle, by promoting bone growth and preventing bone loss.

  • Maintains vaginal health: Estriol helps maintain vaginal health by promoting the growth of healthy vaginal tissue, increasing vaginal lubrication, and preventing infections.

  • Helps with urinary incontinence: Estriol has been found to improve urinary incontinence by strengthening the muscles in the bladder and urethra.

  • Promotes skin health: Estriol has been shown to improve skin elasticity, thickness, and hydration, which can help prevent wrinkles and other signs of aging.

  • May prevent breast cancer: Studies have suggested that Estriol may have anti-cancer properties and may help prevent the development of breast cancer.

  • May improve brain function: Estriol may have a neuroprotective effect and may improve cognitive function and memory in postmenopausal women.

  • May improve cardiovascular health: Estriol has been shown to improve cardiovascular health by increasing blood flow and reducing inflammation.


Before starting hormone replacement therapy (HRT), it is important to consult with your healthcare provider to discuss your specific needs and medical history. Your doctor may recommend measuring your levels of all three types of estrogen, including estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3), to determine the appropriate dosage and type of HRT for you. Once your hormone levels are assessed, your doctor may suggest starting with a low dose of HRT, and gradually increasing it over time to find the optimal balance of estrogen for your body. This can help reduce potential side effects and ensure that you are receiving the correct amount of each type of estrogen. It is also recommended to have your hormone levels checked regularly while on HRT to ensure that your dosage remains appropriate for your body's needs.



Estrogen detoxification

Detoxification is a vital process for the elimination of excess estrogen from the body. However, toxins and pesticides found in everyday life can hinder the body's natural detoxification process. In fact, the average person is exposed to over 80,000 chemicals, many of which can disrupt hormonal balance and contribute to estrogen dominance. These toxins can come from a variety of sources, including the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the foods we eat. Pesticides, in particular, can be a significant source of environmental estrogen exposure.


One way the body detoxifies excess estrogen is through the liver. The liver breaks down estrogen into water-soluble compounds that can be excreted in urine or bile. However, if the liver is overburdened with toxins or not functioning optimally, this process can be impaired, leading to an accumulation of estrogen in the body. To support liver detoxification, it is important to eat a nutrient-dense diet, avoid alcohol and processed foods, and engage in regular exercise.


Another way the body eliminates excess estrogen is through bowel movements. When estrogen is metabolized in the liver, it is sent to the intestines to be eliminated in feces. However, if the bowel movements are not regular, estrogen can be reabsorbed into the bloodstream, leading to an accumulation of estrogen in the body. To promote regular bowel movements and support estrogen detoxification, it is essential to consume adequate fiber and drink plenty of water.



Toxin build up

Symptoms of toxin build up

  • Fatigue

  • Headaches

  • Brain fog

  • Muscle aches and weakness

  • Joint pain

  • Skin problems

  • Digestive issues

  • Sleep disturbances

  • Mood changes

  • Weight gain or difficulty losing weight


Toxicity's impact on the Endocrine, Immune, and Neurological Systems

  • Endocrine system: Toxins can interfere with the production, transport, and function of hormones, leading to hormonal imbalances and disorders such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and diabetes.

  • Immune system: Toxins can weaken the immune system, making it less able to fight off infections and diseases. They can also trigger autoimmune reactions and inflammation, leading to conditions such as allergies, asthma, and autoimmune disorders.

  • Neurological system: Toxins can damage the brain and nervous system, leading to cognitive deficits, memory loss, mood disorders, and neurological diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. They can also interfere with the production and function of neurotransmitters, leading to anxiety, depression, and other mental health disorders.

Your exposure to toxins is increased by:

  • Eating conventionally grown produce that may contain pesticides.

  • Consuming food from animals that were given antibiotics, growth hormones or fed with GMO foods.

  • Drinking unfiltered tap water that may contain toxins such as fluoride and lead.

  • Using plastic containers that may contain BPA and other chemicals that leach into food and drinks.

  • Using personal care products that contain harmful chemicals such as parabens and phthalates.

  • Breathing polluted air from traffic, factories, and other sources.

  • Living in a home or working in a building that has poor ventilation.

  • Using cleaning products that contain harsh chemicals such as bleach and ammonia.

  • Smoking cigarettes or being around second-hand smoke.

  • Using pesticides or herbicides in your garden or lawn.

  • Using artificial sweeteners such as aspartame.

  • Drinking alcohol excessively or frequently.

  • Eating processed and packaged foods that contain additives, preservatives, and artificial colors.

  • Consuming high amounts of fish that may contain mercury and other toxins.

  • Using non-stick cookware that may contain PFOA.

  • Using antibacterial soaps and cleaners that contain triclosan.

  • Using air fresheners that contain synthetic fragrances.

  • Using flame retardants in furniture, carpets, and clothing.

  • Using personal care products that contain synthetic fragrances.

  • Using water bottles made from polycarbonate plastic.

  • Eating canned foods that may contain BPA.

  • Using mothballs or other pest control products that contain naphthalene or paradichlorobenzene.

  • Using traditional dry cleaning methods that use perchloroethylene.

  • Living in a home built before 1978 that may contain lead paint.

  • Being exposed to radiation from medical tests such as X-rays and CT scans.

  • Using nail polish that contains formaldehyde or dibutyl phthalate.

  • Drinking coffee that may contain acrylamide.

  • Eating processed meats that contain nitrites.

  • Being exposed to mold and mildew in the home.

  • Using sunscreen that contains oxybenzone and other harmful chemicals.

Xenoestrogens

Xenoestrogens are chemical compounds that mimic the effects of estrogen in the body. These compounds can be found in various sources such as plastics, personal care products, and pesticides. When xenoestrogens enter the body, they can bind to estrogen receptors and cause an increase in estrogen-like activity, which can disrupt the body's natural hormone balance. This disruption can result in an increase in estrogen levels, which can lead to various health issues such as hormonal imbalances, reproductive problems, and an increased risk of breast cancer. It's important to limit exposure to xenoestrogens by avoiding the use of products that contain these compounds and choosing natural and organic options instead.


The detoxification process

Estrogen detoxification is an essential process that occurs in the liver, where excess estrogen and other toxins are broken down and eliminated from the body. The liver uses two primary pathways, Phase I and Phase II, to metabolize and eliminate these substances. Phase I involves enzymes that convert estrogens into intermediate compounds that can be harmful if not further metabolized. In Phase II, enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase add molecules to these intermediate compounds, making them less toxic and more water-soluble, and eventually eliminated through urine or feces.


However, if this process is not working correctly, it can lead to an imbalance between Phase I and Phase II detoxification pathways, which can result in the accumulation of harmful intermediate compounds. This can increase the risk of estrogen-related health issues such as breast cancer, endometriosis, and hormonal imbalances. Therefore, it is crucial to maintain a healthy liver function and optimize the estrogen detoxification process to reduce the risk of health complications. 


Phase I detoxification: Your first line of defense

Phase I detoxification is the first line of defense in the process of estrogen detoxification. This phase involves the action of a family of enzymes called cytochrome P450s (CYPs), which play a vital role in metabolizing and breaking down estrogens and other toxins in the liver. The primary function of Phase I is to convert fat-soluble toxins into more water-soluble compounds, which can then be more easily eliminated from the body.


During Phase I, CYPs modify the chemical structure of the toxins, creating intermediate compounds that are often more reactive and potentially harmful than the original toxins. These intermediate compounds can damage DNA and other cellular components if not further metabolized in Phase II. Therefore, the balance between Phase I and Phase II is critical for proper estrogen detoxification.


There are many factors that can affect the efficiency of Phase I detoxification. Certain genetic variations can alter the activity of CYPs, leading to slower or faster metabolism of toxins. Environmental factors, such as exposure to chemicals and pollutants, can also impact the activity of CYPs, potentially leading to increased toxicity.


One example of how Phase I detoxification can impact our health is in the case of estrogen dominance, a condition in which the body produces or retains too much estrogen relative to other hormones. Phase I plays a crucial role in metabolizing estrogen and converting it into less active forms. However, if Phase I is overactive or Phase II is impaired, estrogen can accumulate in its intermediate, more reactive form, leading to symptoms such as breast tenderness, irregular periods, and mood swings.


While Phase I is a critical component of estrogen detoxification, it is important to note that an overactive Phase I can also increase the risk of cancer and other health issues. Therefore, it is crucial to maintain a proper balance between Phase I and Phase II detoxification to ensure optimal health and wellness.



Nutrients required for Phase I detoxification:

  • B vitamins, especially B2, B3, and B6

  • Vitamin C

  • Vitamin E

  • Magnesium

  • Zinc

  • Iron

  • Copper

  • Manganese

  • Selenium

  • Flavonoids

  • Carotenoids

  • Glutathione

  • Coenzyme Q10

  • Lipoic acid

  • Methionine



Phase II detofxification conjugation of toxins and elimination

Phase II detoxification is an essential process that follows Phase I detoxification, which involves converting fat-soluble toxins into intermediate compounds. Phase II detoxification, also known as conjugation, conjugates these intermediate compounds with water-soluble molecules, making them easier for the body to eliminate. Without the Phase II process, the intermediate compounds produced in Phase I could become even more toxic and cause harm to the body. Therefore, Phase II detoxification is a critical step that complements Phase I and ensures that the body eliminates toxins safely and effectively. The balance between Phase I and Phase II is also important because an imbalance can lead to an accumulation of intermediate compounds that can cause damage to cells and tissues, increasing the risk of disease.


Stage I of Phase II detoxification: Need Glutathione and Vitamin B6

During glutathione conjugation, the electrophilic center of a toxin molecule is attacked by the thiol group of glutathione, forming a covalent bond between the two molecules. The resulting conjugate is more water-soluble than the original toxin, which facilitates its elimination through the urine or bile. Glutathione conjugation is a highly efficient detoxification pathway, but it can become saturated if the body is exposed to high levels of toxins or if glutathione levels are depleted.


Supporting glutathione conjugation and Phase II detoxification in general can be an important strategy for preventing and treating toxicity-related conditions. This can be achieved through a balanced diet rich in antioxidants, sulfur-containing amino acids, and other nutrients that support glutathione synthesis and function. Some natural compounds, such as curcumin and milk thistle, have been shown to enhance GST activity and increase glutathione levels. Regular exercise, stress reduction, and adequate sleep are also important for maintaining optimal glutathione status and overall health.


Stage II: Amino acid conjugation. This stage requires glycine, taurine, and glutamine

In Stage II of Phase II detoxification, amino acids such as glycine, taurine, and glutamine are used to conjugate toxins. This process involves the transfer of an amino acid molecule to the toxin or intermediate compound, which increases its solubility and helps to facilitate its excretion from the body. Amino acid conjugation is particularly important for the elimination of nitrogen-containing toxins, such as certain drugs and environmental pollutants. Glycine conjugation is the most common type of amino acid conjugation and is involved in the metabolism of a wide range of toxins, including benzoic acid, salicylic acid, and certain drugs. Taurine conjugation is also involved in the metabolism of certain drugs, as well as bile acids and other endogenous compounds. Glutamine conjugation is less common but is important for the elimination of certain toxins, such as acrolein, which is found in cigarette smoke and car exhaust fumes. Overall, amino acid conjugation is an important component of Phase II detoxification and works in conjunction with other conjugation pathways to help eliminate toxins from the body.


Stage II: Methylation. It requires folic acid, choline, methionine, trimethyglycine, and s-adenosyl-methionine (SAMe)


Stage II of Phase II detoxification is methylation, where a methyl group is added to the intermediate compound. The addition of a methyl group neutralizes the compound, making it less toxic and more water-soluble, allowing for easy elimination from the body. This process is facilitated by methyltransferase enzymes, which use nutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, and methionine as cofactors. Methylation plays an important role in detoxifying various toxins, including excess estrogen, heavy metals, and environmental toxins. Impaired methylation can lead to an accumulation of toxic compounds in the body, contributing to various health problems such as cancer and cardiovascular disease.

Stage IV: Sulfation. It requires cysteine, methionine, and molybdenum

Stage IV of Phase II detoxification is sulfation. Sulfation is the process of adding a sulfate molecule to a toxic compound to make it more water-soluble and easier to eliminate from the body. The enzyme responsible for this process is called sulfotransferase (SULT). Sulfation plays a crucial role in the elimination of many endogenous and exogenous substances, including hormones, drugs, and environmental toxins. It is particularly important in the detoxification of phenols, a class of compounds commonly found in foods, beverages, and personal care products, as well as in the breakdown of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. A deficiency in sulfation can lead to an accumulation of toxic compounds in the body and increase the risk of various health conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and autoimmune diseases.


Stage V: Acetylation. It requires acetyl coA.

Stage V of Phase II detoxification is acetylation. This process involves the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to a molecule, such as an amine or an amino acid. This reaction is catalyzed by enzymes called acetyltransferases. Acetylation helps to increase the solubility of toxins, making them easier to eliminate from the body. This process is particularly important for the detoxification of certain drugs and histamines. A deficiency in acetyltransferase activity has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer and other diseases.


Stage VI: Glucuronidation. Requires glucuronic acid. 

Stage VI of Phase II detoxification is glucuronidation, which is the process of attaching a glucuronic acid molecule to a toxic compound. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and occurs in the liver and other tissues. Glucuronidation is an important mechanism for the elimination of a wide variety of xenobiotics, including drugs, environmental pollutants, and endogenous compounds. The glucuronide conjugates formed are more water-soluble and easily excreted through the urine or bile. The glucuronidation pathway is essential for the proper detoxification of many compounds, and its impairment has been linked to the development of several diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.


Assessing Your Detoxification Capacity

Measuring Phase I and Phase II detoxification pathways can be done through blood, saliva, and urine tests. Blood tests can measure the activity of specific enzymes involved in Phase I detoxification, such as cytochrome P450. Saliva tests can also measure the activity of specific enzymes, as well as levels of certain hormones and neurotransmitters that are processed by these pathways. Urine tests can detect the presence of metabolites produced during Phase II detoxification, such as glutathione and glucuronide conjugates. These tests can provide insight into an individual's detoxification capacity and identify potential imbalances between Phase I and Phase II pathways. However, it is important to note that these tests may not always accurately reflect an individual's overall detoxification function, as other factors such as gut health and genetics can also play a role. Consulting with a healthcare professional trained in functional medicine can help interpret these tests and develop a personalized plan to support optimal detoxification.


Genovations testing

Genovations testing is a type of genetic testing that can provide valuable information about an individual's detoxification and oxidative protection abilities. This test can evaluate genetic variations that affect phase I and phase II detoxification, as well as the body's ability to get rid of free radical production. By identifying specific genetic variations, healthcare professionals can develop personalized treatment plans to support optimal detoxification and reduce the risk of chronic disease. However, it is important to note that while genetic testing can provide valuable information, it should not be used in isolation to make treatment decisions. It should be combined with other diagnostic tools and interpreted by a qualified healthcare professional trained in functional medicine. Ultimately, a comprehensive approach to health and wellness is the best way to achieve optimal detoxification and reduce the risk of chronic disease.


Detoxification and nutrition

Liver detoxification is a complex process that involves two distinct phases, phase I and phase II. Several nutrients can support and promote the proper functioning of both phases. In phase I, nutrients such as B vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin E, and flavonoids can help boost the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are involved in the conversion of toxins and hormones. These nutrients can be found in foods such as leafy greens, citrus fruits, nuts, and berries.


In phase II, nutrients such as glutathione, glycine, and sulfur-containing compounds like methionine and cysteine are crucial for the conjugation of toxins with amino acids, making them less toxic and more water-soluble for elimination. Foods that contain these nutrients include cruciferous vegetables, eggs, fish, and poultry. Additionally, drinking plenty of water can help flush out the conjugated toxins from the body.


While a healthy diet rich in these nutrients is important for optimal liver detoxification, it is also important to minimize exposure to toxins in the first place. This can be achieved by reducing consumption of processed foods, alcohol, and sugar, and avoiding exposure to environmental toxins such as pesticides and heavy metals. Engaging in regular physical activity, getting adequate sleep, and managing stress can also support the liver's detoxification function.


Estrogen and your brain

Estrogen also affects the levels of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, which are involved in mood regulation and motivation.


However, the relationship between estrogen and the brain is complex, and changes in estrogen levels can have both positive and negative effects. For example, low levels of estrogen during menopause have been linked to cognitive decline and an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. On the other hand, high levels of estrogen during pregnancy have been associated with improved cognitive function and a reduced risk of postpartum depression.


Research has also shown that estrogen affects brain function differently depending on the stage of life. In women, estrogen levels fluctuate throughout the menstrual cycle, with higher levels during the follicular phase (the first half of the cycle) and lower levels during the luteal phase (the second half of the cycle). Studies have suggested that women may perform better on cognitive tasks during the follicular phase, when estrogen levels are higher.



Effects of estrogen on the brain

  • Helps regulate mood and emotions

  • Improves memory and cognitive function

  • Promotes neuroplasticity (the brain's ability to change and adapt)

  • Increases dopamine and serotonin activity

  • Enhances brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, which is important for brain health

  • Increases cerebral blood flow, which is important for brain function

  • Modulates the stress response system

  • Reduces inflammation in the brain

  • Promotes the growth of new brain cells

  • Protects against age-related cognitive decline

  • Promotes the production of myelin, a fatty substance that insulates nerve cells and speeds up nerve impulses

  • Plays a role in regulating the sleep-wake cycle

  • Regulates appetite and food intake

  • Influences social behavior

  • Plays a role in sexual behavior and arousal

  • Helps regulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is important for stress response

  • Regulates the secretion of various hormones in the body

  • Promotes the growth and maintenance of bone density

  • Helps regulate body temperature

  • Affects pain perception

  • Regulates autonomic nervous system function

  • Modulates the immune system response

  • Influences cardiovascular function

  • Affects the metabolism of glucose and lipids

  • Promotes the growth and maintenance of breast tissue

  • Affects skin health and appearance

  • Regulates muscle function

  • Affects lung function

  • Plays a role in kidney function

  • Affects the health and function of the digestive system.


Summary

Estrogen is a hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries of women. It plays a crucial role in regulating various aspects of reproductive health, including menstruation, pregnancy, and lactation. In addition to its reproductive functions, estrogen has a number of other benefits for women's health.


One of the main benefits of estrogen is its positive effect on bone health. Estrogen helps to maintain bone density and prevent the loss of bone mass that can occur with age. This is particularly important for women, who are at higher risk for osteoporosis, a condition in which bones become weak and brittle.


Estrogen also has a positive effect on cardiovascular health. It helps to lower cholesterol levels and improve blood flow, which can reduce the risk of heart disease. It also has a positive effect on blood vessels, helping to keep them flexible and healthy.


Another benefit of estrogen is its effect on the skin. Estrogen helps to maintain skin elasticity and moisture, which can help to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. It also plays a role in regulating oil production, which can help to prevent acne.


Overall, estrogen plays a crucial role in many aspects of women's health. It supports reproductive health, helps to maintain bone density, and has a positive effect on cardiovascular health and skin health.